Race, Crime, and Punishment Just as conscious and unconscious racial notions helped define the drug problem, they have also helped shape political and policy responses to that problem. The legislative history of federal crack sentencing laws, for example, provides reason "to suspect that regardless of the objectives Congress was pursuing, it would have shown more restraint in fashioning the crack penalties or more interest in amending them in ensuing years, if the penalties did not apply almost exclusively to blacks.
Economic and social change in U. Byof the 9 billion people living on Earth, 6. Recent data from the U. Census show important trends within the bigger data points: Cities now represent At the same time, rural areas were home to a falling percentage of population, This is good news for U.
Many urban areas now feature higher-wage jobs and rising real estate values. However, growth can require hard choicesparticularly when it comes to housing and transportation. More people mean more cars, the number-one source of traffic congestion and the direct and indirect cause of tens of thousands of deaths every year in the United States.
Some cities have addressed these issues by increasing incentives for bicyclingcontrolling automobile parking and even building new streetcar systems. While many cities are doing well, the benefits are not always evenly distributed. As city-center incomes have risen, poverty has shifted into the suburbs and rural areas.
Economic inequality in the U. Marcotullio of Hunter College write in a paper. Urbanization is a process, one of simultaneous transformation of places, populations, economies, and the built environment that creates an urban society. Despite a panoply of researchers studying cities, research on urbanization has not focused on the process and its intersection with other environmental systems.
It has sections on economicsmobilityenvironmentcrimehealth and demographics.
Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, May While these cities have lost most of their manufacturing bases and central functionsmany have begun to regain vitality and rebuild important new economic roles…. New America Foundation, June But there is little common understanding of this field or its potential.
Based on nearly 20 interviews with government leaders, researchers, technologists, community organizers, foundation professionals and others, this white paper explores the current landscape and future potential of the civic innovation field as a first step toward bringing together disparate communities to identify needs, develop solutions and deepen democracy.
It finds that while technology can empower civic innovation, technology does not drive it. Furthermore, concentrating on technology can alienate many in the civic innovation ecosystem.
Industrial and Corporate Change,Vol. This multiplier effect is particularly large for jobs with high levels of human capital and for high-technology industries.
These findings are important for local development policies, as they suggest that to increase local employment levels, municipalities should target high-technology employers with high levels of human capital.
Journal of Economic Geography, June In addition, skills are a much better predictor of wages than education level: Metropolitan areas with higher levels of degree production tend to have higher numbers of people in human capital intensive occupations.
In particular, the share of people working in the life, physical and social sciences in a metropolitan area is positively associated with degree production. This is also true of metropolitan areas that spend significant amounts of money on research and development.
Working paper, April and the criminal justice system in the United States, with particular emphasis on studies that illustrate instigated or participated in race riots in cities nation-wide, and police behavior encouraged hostility toward and violence in minority toward our understanding of race and crime in America; yet many issues continue to generate.
Sep 01, · “Maintaining one’s status and credibility and honor, if you will, within that peer community is literally a matter of life and death,” Milwaukee’s police chief, . Topic: We want to determine the primary factors that affect property crime rates in the United States.
The statistical analysis of the data involves multiple-regression analysis. Questions to answer are: 1.
What are the primary determinants of property crimes in the United States? 2. Below is a selection of studies related to cities and urban trends both in the United States and the world. It has sections on economics, mobility, environment, crime, health and demographics.
————————-Economics “Regenerating America’s Legacy Cities” Mallach, Alan; Brachman, Lavea. Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, May In the midst of this emotional debate, the National Research Council's Panel on Juvenile Crime steps forward with an authoritative review of the best available data and analysis.
Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice presents recommendations for addressing the many aspects of America's youth crime problem.
The FBI is dedicated to eliminating transnational organized crime groups that pose the greatest threat to the national and economic security of the United States.