Here is a sample paraphrase: From Ron Bachman, "Reaching for the Sky. Just how high can a building go? Structural engineer William LeMessurier has designed a skyscraper nearly one-half mile high, twice as tall as the Sears Tower.
The Antebellum Period in American history is generally considered to be the period before the civil war and after the War ofalthough some historians expand it to all the years from the adoption of the Constitution in to the beginning of the Civil War.
It was characterized by the rise of abolition and the gradual polarization of the country between abolitionists and supporters of slavery. The annexation of new territory and western expansion saw the reinforcement of American individualism and of Manifest Destiny, the idea that Americans and the institutions of the U.
The Cotton Economy In The South In the South, cotton plantations were very profitable, at least until overplanting leached most of the nutrients from the soil. Plantation owners were able to obtain large tracts of land for little money, particularly after the Indian Removal Act was passed in These plantations depended on a large force of slave labor to cultivate and harvest the crop—most white farmers in the 19th century wanted and were able to obtain their own farms as the U.
The demand for slave labor and the U. As the quality of land decreased from over-cultivation, slave owners increasingly found that the majority of their wealth existed in the form of their slaves; they began looking to new lands in Texas and further west, as well as in the Caribbean and Central America, as places where they might expand their holdings and how to write a historical context paper their way of life.
Early Industrialization and the Rise in Manufacturing in the North The early industrial revolution began with textile industry in New England, which was revolutionized by Samuel Slater. Inthe horse-powered Beverly Cotton Manufactory had begun operating in Beverly, Massachusetts; inSlater opened the first fully mechanized mill in Pawtucket, Rhode Island.
His system of independent mills and mill towns spread through the Blackstone Valley into Massachusetts. The Waltham system also included specialized, trained employees to run the looms—mainly young women—giving rise to the concept of wage labor, which gradually began overtaking previous forms of labor, such as apprenticeship and indentured servitude, family labor, and slavery in industrialized areas.
A population shift from farms to cities had already begun, but the promise of better income in factory jobs accelerated that movement. Manufacturing advances were not limited to the textile industry alone. Similar advances occurred in other industries, including the manufacture of equipment, machinery, furniture, paints, paper, and glass.
Every part of American industry and production was affected. Penny Press and Affordable Newspapers Among the areas benefitting from advances in technology was the printing business, in particular, the printing of newspapers.
Most newspapers in the early 19th century cost six cents a copy and were affordable only to the upper classes, though a barter system often allowed readers to trade rags, whiskey or other goods for a subscription.
InAmerican Richard M. Hoe made a further improvement with the rotary printing press, which arranged the material to be printed on a cylinder rather than a flat plate, allowing a much larger volumes of material to be printed—millions of copies in a day rather than thousands—at a lower cost.
These advances led to a rise in the number of newspapers published, with more available at prices affordable to the working class—byabout 3, newspapers were published in the U.
Papers were often read aloud in homes, bringing news of the government, politics, and local events. Significant speeches were sometimes printed in their entirety, giving politicians and social activists a much wider audience.
Stories from one newspaper might be reprinted in others, sometimes with local commentary or editorial rebuttals added. The advent of the telegraph meant news from distant places could be disseminated much more rapidly.
Newspapers also relied on news—factual or not—provided in the form of letters to the editor, which were usually unsigned or made use of a pseudonym such as Plato or A True American. They sold for a penny each, making news and even literacy itself more accessible to the working class.
Many stories in the penny papers were sensationalist and embellished to say the least. Modern tabloids can trace their origins to the penny press—but so can modern mainstream newspapers. As the papers grew in circulation, they increased in size from one sheet to two or more.
To fill those pages, editors added reporters with specific beats. Although sensational stories sold a lot of papers, so did opinion pieces. The increase in newspapers opened a new public forum—and means of entertainment—that was accessible to all.
Canals, Turnpikes, and Early Railroads Following the Revolutionary War, business and political leaders recognized the need to further unify the country with roads. Local governments and private turnpike and railroad companies began building roads and canals.
The War of and the rise of internal trade—between southern plantations and northern textile manufacturers—proved that the problem of internal transportation was far from solved and a federal system was needed, but various proposals to fund and build a national transportation system were deemed unconstitutional.
The conservative Democratic Party in particular opposed federal funding of internal improvements. Instead, private companies proposed roads and canals, then enticed investors to provide fund building. Inconstruction began on the Erie Canal to link Lake Erie and the Hudson River, inspiring a canal-building boom that lasted into the s when railroads supplanted canals.
Turnpike companies also experienced a boom—bymore than 10, miles of turnpikes were operating in the east. Commissioners were authorized to collect tolls and were responsible for maintaining the stretch of road under their care.Virginia has been a university English instructor for over 20 years.
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This bar-code number lets you verify that you're getting exactly the right version or edition of a book. The digit and digit formats both work. Literacy is traditionally defined as the ability to read and write. In the modern world, this is one way of interpreting literacy.
A more broad interpretation is literacy as knowledge and competence in a specific area. The concept of literacy has evolved in meaning.