American Psychological Association format is most often used when writing articles relating to social and behavioral sciences. The sixth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association provides guidelines on how to structure, format and cite your critique.
History Hermann Rorschach created the inkblot test in Using interpretation of "ambiguous designs" to assess an individual's personality is an idea that goes back to Leonardo da Vinci and Botticelli. Interpretation of inkblots was central to a game, Gobolinks from the late 19th century.
Rorschach's, however, was the first systematic approach of this kind. Although he had served as Vice President of the Swiss Psychoanalytic Society, Rorschach had difficulty in publishing the book and it attracted little attention when it first appeared.
Exner summarized some of these later developments in the comprehensive system, at the same time trying to make the scoring more statistically rigorous.
Some systems are based on the psychoanalytic concept of object relations. The Exner system remains very popular in the United Stateswhile in Europe other methods sometimes dominate,   such as that described in the textbook by Evald Bohmwhich is closer to the original Rorschach system and rooted more deeply in the original psychoanalysis principles.
It was not until that the test was used as a projective test of personality, a use of which Rorschach had always been skeptical.
The administrator and subject typically sit next to each other at a table, with the administrator slightly behind the subject.
Side-by-side seating of the examiner and the subject is used to reduce any effects of inadvertent cues from the examiner to the subject. In other words, side-by-side seating mitigates the possibility that the examiner will accidentally influence the subject's responses.
Five inkblots are of black ink, two are of black and red ink and three are multicolored, on a white background.
The subject is usually asked to hold the cards and may rotate them. Whether the cards are rotated, and other related factors such as whether permission to rotate them is asked, may expose personality traits and normally contributes to the assessment.
Analysis of responses is recorded by the test administrator using a tabulation and scoring sheet and, if required, a separate location chart. The underlying assumption is that an individual will class external stimuli based on person-specific perceptual sets, and including needsbase motivesconflictsand that this clustering process is representative of the process used in real-life situations.
Rorschach scoring systems have been described as a system of pegs on which to hang one's knowledge of personality. Administration of the test to a group of subjects, by means of projected images, has also occasionally been performed, but mainly for research rather than diagnostic purposes.
The interpretation of a Rorschach record is a complex process. It requires a wealth of knowledge concerning personality dynamics generally as well as considerable experience with the Rorschach method specifically.
Proficiency as a Rorschach administrator can be gained within a few months. However, even those who are able and qualified to become Rorschach interpreters usually remain in a "learning stage" for a number of years. In fact, the contents of the response are only a comparatively small portion of a broader cluster of variables that are used to interpret the Rorschach data: There are 27 established codes for identifying the name of the descriptive object.
The codes are classified and include terms such as "human", "nature", "animal", "abstract", "clothing", "fire", and "x-ray", to name a few. Content described that does not have a code already established should be coded using the code "idiographic contents" with the shorthand code being "Idio.
Location refers to how much of the inkblot was used to answer the question.
Administrators score the response "W" if the whole inkblot was used to answer the question, "D" if a commonly described part of the blot was used, "Dd" if an uncommonly described or unusual detail was used, or "S" if the white space in the background was used.
A score of W is typically associated with the subject's motivation to interact with his or her surrounding environment. D is interpreted as one having efficient or adequate functioning. A high frequency of responses coded Dd indicate some maladjustment within the individual. Responses coded S indicate an oppositional or uncooperative test subject.
These are the factors that contribute to establishing the similarity between the inkblot and the subject's content response about it. They can also represent certain basic experiential-perceptual attitudes, showing aspects of the way a subject perceives the world.
Rorschach's original work used only form, color and movement as determinants. However currently, another major determinant considered is shading,  which was inadvertently introduced by poor printing quality of the inkblots. Rorschach initially disregarded shading,  since the inkblots originally featured uniform saturation, but later recognized it as a significant factor.
Color responses often provide direct insight into one's emotional life. Movement and shading have been considered more ambiguously, both in definition and interpretation.To write an article review in APA format, start by formatting the citation of the article.
Read through the article and identify the standard APA sections, such as the abstract, introduction, method, study and results. An APA article ends with a discussion section.
Next, read and review the text.
Start by citing the article according to APA style. Begin with the last name(s) and initial(s) of the author(s). This is followed by the year of publication in parentheses. With our efficient and reliable essay writing service, you won't have any troubles with your assignments anymore.
Don't worry about tight deadlines and difficult topics - our professional writers and trained to meet any requirements under any pressure with ease. Journal Article Critique Example Author: Political Science / Public Administration Created Date: 1/5/ AM.
When you write a journal critique, you give a qualified opinion of the article. American Psychological Association format is most often used when writing articles relating to social and behavioral sciences. Hire a highly qualified essay writer to cater for all your content needs. Whether you struggle to write an essay, coursework, research paper, annotated bibliography or dissertation, we’ll connect you with a screened academic writer for effective writing assistance.