Organizational evolution as it applies to organized crime

Gangs[ edit ] Yakuzaor Japanese mafia are not allowed to show their tattoos in public except during the Sanja Matsuri festival. In today's usage, the term " gang " is generally used for a criminal organization, and the term "gangster" invariably describes a criminal. There is agreement that the members of a gang have a sense of common identity and belonging, and this is typically reinforced through shared activities and through visual identifications such as special clothing, tattoos or rings. For example, the common view that illegal drug distribution in the United States is largely controlled by gangs has been questioned.

Organizational evolution as it applies to organized crime

A husband and wife may make a single return jointly of income taxes even though one of the spouses has neither gross income nor deductions, except as provided below: The above exception shall not apply if the surviving spouse remarries before the close of his taxable year, nor if the taxable year of either spouse is a fractional part of a year under section a 1 ; in the case of death of one spouse or both spouses the joint return with respect to the decedent may be made only by his executor or administrator; except that in the case of the death of one spouse the joint return may be made by the surviving spouse with respect to both himself and the decedent if no return for the taxable year has been made by the decedent, no executor or administrator has been appointed, and no executor or administrator is appointed before the last day prescribed by law for filing the return of the surviving spouse.

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If an executor or administrator of the decedent is appointed after the making of the joint return by the surviving spouse, the executor or administrator may disaffirm such joint return by making, within 1 year after the last day prescribed by law for filing the return of the surviving spouse, a separate return for the taxable year of the decedent with respect to which the joint return was made, in which case the return made by the survivor Organizational evolution as it applies to organized crime constitute his separate return.

Married Filing Separately and Allocation of Deductions and Expenses Most married taxpayers can choose whether to file joint returns or separate returns. Most couples will pay less tax if they file joint returns, but in some situations they will benefit from filing separate returns.

A married individual filing a separate return must report on that return his or her own items of gross income, exemptions, deductions and credits.

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IRS PublicationDivorced or Separated Individualsincludes a chart showing how itemized deductions are allocated when separate returns are filed in community and noncommunity property states. Allowable deductions may be taken by the individual who actually makes the expenditure.

Newcombe, 10 TCMDec. When Married Taxpayers Should File Separate Returns Married couples usually have a lower tax liability if they file a joint return than if they file separately because of the tax rates and other provisions which are generally more generous to married individuals filing joint returns.

However, circumstances may be such that one spouse does not want to incur the potential liability for tax on a joint return and would therefore rather file a separate return even though the resulting tax liability may be higher.

There are a few, somewhat unusual situations when a married couple might have a lower combined tax liability by filing separate returns rather than by filing a joint return. When these fact patterns appear, computations of tax liability should be made under both the married filing separate returns rules and the married filing jointly provisions so that a comparison can be made.

Miscellaneous Itemized Deductions Miscellaneous itemized deductions are allowed only to the extent they exceed 2 percent of an individual's adjusted gross income. If one spouse itemizes deductions, however, the standard deduction for the other spouse is zero.

Personal Casualty Gains and Losses The excess of personal casualty losses over personal casualty gains in a tax year is deductible only to the extent the excess is greater than 10 percent of adjusted gross income. If they file separate returns the loss would be deducted from ordinary income, while the gain would be taxed at the rates for capital gains.

If they file a joint return, the personal casualty gain is offset by the personal casualty loss. Medical Expenses The deduction for medical expenses is allowed only to the extent the expenses exceed 7. Husband does not have any medical expenses for the tax year. Sales or Exchanges of Business Property and Involuntary Conversions Taxpayers treat gains and losses from the sale or exchange of property used in a trade or business, or from the involuntary conversion of capital assets held in connection with a trade or business, as long-term capital gains and losses when recognized gains in a current tax year exceed recognized losses.

When the gains do not exceed the losses, the gains and losses are treated as ordinary. Thus, if one spouse has a large gain and the other spouse has a large loss, it may be advantageous to file separate returns.

If Husband and Wife file a joint return, their aggregate Section gains exceed their Section losses, so the Section gain is a long-term capital gain and the Section loss is a long-term capital loss. If they file separate returns, however, Husband's Section gain will be treated as long-term capital gain, while Wife's Section loss will be treated an ordinary loss.No more talk about the old days, it’s time for something great.

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Organizational evolution as it applies to organized crime

The notion of "models of organized crime" has in the past been most closely linked to a threefold classification proposed by Jay Albanese ( ; ), who distinguishes a "hierarchical model", a "patron-client model" .

Theory of Development. by Garry Jacobs, Robert Macfarlane, and N. Asokan [presented to Pacific Rim Economic Conference, Bangkok, Jan , ].

Organizational evolution as it applies to organized crime

Organized Crime: An Evolving Challenge for U.S. Law Enforcement Congressional Research Service Summary In the last two decades, organized crime has grown more complex, posing evolving challenges for. Organized crime is a category of transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals who intend to engage in illegal activity, most commonly for money and yunusemremert.com criminal organizations, such as terrorist groups, are politically yunusemremert.commes criminal organizations force people to do business with them, such as when a gang extorts money from.

Review of Psychopathy.