You are such a Boy Scout! You see everything in black and white! Jack Ryan [Harrison Ford]:
Shop workspaces Airlock, for pressurization and dust management Resource extraction equipment —initially for water and oxygen, later for a wider cross section of minerals, building materials, etc. Equipment for energy production and energy storagesome solar Our future on mars essay perhaps nuclear as well Mars greenhouses feature in many colonization designs, especially for food production and other purposes Various technologies and devices for Mars are shown in the illustration of a Mars base Propellant production equipmentgenerally thought to be hydrogen and methane through the Sabatier reaction  for fuel—with oxygen oxidizer—for chemical rocket engines Fuels or other energy source for use with surface transportation.
According to Elon Musk"even at a million people [working on Mars] you're assuming an incredible amount of productivity per person, because you would need to recreate the entire industrial base on Mars You would need to mine and refine all of these different materials, in a much more difficult environment than Earth".
While these will eventually wear out, additional orbiters with communication relay capability are likely to be launched before any colonization expeditions are mounted. Real-time communication, such as telephone conversations or Internet Relay Chatbetween Earth and Mars would be highly impractical due to the long time lags involved.
NASA has found that direct communication can be blocked for about two weeks every synodic periodaround the time of superior conjunction when the Sun is directly between Mars and Earth,  although the actual duration of the communications blackout varies from mission to mission depending on various factors—such as the amount of link margin designed into the communications system, and the minimum data rate that is acceptable from a mission standpoint.
In reality most missions at Mars have had communications blackout periods of the order of a month. However, the size and power of the equipment needed for these distances make the L4 and L5 locations unrealistic for relay stations, and the inherent stability of these regions, although beneficial in terms of station-keeping, also attracts dust and asteroids, which could pose a risk.
Recent work by the University of Strathclyde 's Advanced Space Concepts Laboratory, in collaboration with the European Space Agencyhas suggested an alternative relay architecture based on highly non- Keplerian orbits. These are a special kind of orbit produced when continuous low-thrust propulsion, such as that produced from an ion engine or solar sail, modifies the natural trajectory of a spacecraft.
Such an orbit would enable continuous communications during solar conjunction by allowing a relay spacecraft to "hover" above Mars, out of the orbital plane of the two planets. Robotic precursors[ edit ] Astronauts approach Viking 2 lander probe The path to a human colony could be prepared by robotic systems such as the Mars Exploration Rovers SpiritOpportunity and Curiosity.
These systems could help locate resources, such as ground water or ice, that would help a colony grow and thrive. The lifetimes of these systems would be measured in years and even decades, and as recent developments in commercial spaceflight have shown, it may be that these systems will involve private as well as government ownership.
These robotic systems also have a reduced cost compared with early crewed operations, and have less political risk. Wired systems might lay the groundwork for early crewed landings and bases, by producing various consumables including fuel, oxidizers, water, and construction materials.
Establishing power, communications, shelter, heating, and manufacturing basics can begin with robotic systems, if only as a prelude to crewed operations. The reduced gravity well of Mars and its position in the Solar System may facilitate Mars—Earth trade and may provide an economic rationale for continued settlement of the planet.
Given its size and resources, this might eventually be a place to grow food and produce equipment to mine the asteroid belt. A major economic problem is the enormous up-front investment required to establish the colony and perhaps also terraform the planet.
Local resources can also be used in infrastructure construction. Iron in this form is more easily extracted than from the iron oxides that cover the planet.
Another main inter-Martian trade good during early colonization could be manure. Solar power is a candidate for power for a Martian colony. But the thin atmosphere would allow almost all of that energy to reach the surface as compared to Earth, where the atmosphere absorbs roughly a quarter of the solar radiation.
Sunlight on the surface of Mars would be much like a moderately cloudy day on Earth. Although there are no immediate prospects for the large amounts of money required for any space colonization to be available given traditional launch costs,  [ full citation needed ] there is some prospect of a radical reduction to launch costs in the s, which would consequently lessen the cost of any efforts in that direction.
If SpaceX is successful in developing the reusable technology, it would be expected to "have a major impact on the cost of access to space", and change the increasingly competitive market in space launch services. For example, the President's Commission on Implementation of United States Space Exploration Policy suggested that an inducement prize contest should be established, perhaps by government, for the achievement of space colonization.
One example provided was offering a prize to the first organization to place humans on the Moon and sustain them for a fixed period before they return to Earth.
Equatorial regions See also: It has been speculated that settlers could benefit from the shelter that these or similar structures could provide from radiation and micrometeoroids. Geothermal energy is also suspected in the equatorial regions.
Earth based examples indicate that some should have lengthy passages offering complete protection from radiation and be relatively easy to seal using on-site materials, especially in small subsections.
Planetary protection Robotic spacecraft to Mars are required to be sterilized, to have at mostspores on the exterior of the craft—and more thoroughly sterilized if they contact "special regions" containing water,   otherwise there is a risk of contaminating not only the life-detection experiments but possibly the planet itself.
It is impossible to sterilize human missions to this level, as humans are host to typically a hundred trillion microorganisms of thousands of species of the human microbiomeand these cannot be removed while preserving the life of the human.
Containment seems the only option, but it is a major challenge in the event of a hard landing i.Featured. McKinsey Global Institute Our mission is to help leaders in multiple sectors develop a deeper understanding of the global economy.
My third post about typography in sci-fi has been gestating for a while now. Indeed, it’s been slowly taking shape – you might say it’s been forming itself inside of me – for really quite some time. Why the future doesn’t need us. Our most powerful 21st-century technologies – robotics, genetic engineering, and nanotech – are threatening to make humans an endangered species.
From the. From Ad Astra July/August Mars Is The New World. Among extraterrestrial bodies in our solar system, Mars is singular in that it possesses all the raw materials required to support not only life, but a new branch of human civilization. Introduction Though perhaps best known throughout the world for his science fiction, Isaac Asimov was also regarded as one of the great explainers of science.
COMMUNIQUE #3 Haymarket Issue "I NEED ONLY MENTION in passing that there is a curious reappearance of the Catfish tradition in the popular Godzilla cycle of films which arose after the nuclear chaos unleashed upon Japan.