Please help improve the article by presenting facts as a neutrally-worded summary with appropriate citations. Consider transferring direct quotations to Wikiquote. December The historian Julian Jackson argued that there were three discrete forms of Jewish resistance in the course of his study of the German occupation of France:
The Middle Managers of Murder Introduction Bureaucracy is not unique to Germany, however its application by the National Socialists as a tool of totalitarian oppression is peerless. Comparisons are often made between Hitler's Germany and Stalin's Soviet Union, but Stalin purged the ranks of the military as well as civil bureaucracies, whereas Hitler preferred to work with the established bureaucracy in deference to expediency.
The rapid rearmament of Germany and mobilization for war required that the Nazi regime make use of the existing administrative machinery [ 1 ]. The German quest for Lebensraum living space meant more than defeating external enemies as would be the case in a traditional war.
A racially pure Germany was the other half of the Lebensraum equation and to this end the Nazis relied on the knowledge and expertise of the Weimar era bureaucrats to execute genocide. Referring to yet "another political regime [that] has come to an inglorious end in Germany, rendering another 'constitution' obsolete and thus making it a fitting object for scientific analysis [ At first glance, Herz appears to be warning of the dangers of leaving the bureaucratic institutions of the German Democratic Republic GDR in place and unexamined in a reunited Germany, but Herz was writing inless than a year after the end of hostilities in the European theater in World War II.
Herz was concerned that the de-Nazification of Germany not ignore the traditional bureaucracies because the perception of independence or 'professionalism' on the part of the bureaucrats was misleading.
The German bureaucracy inherited by Hitler was generally compliant with egregious Nazi policies if not eager accomplices.
Herz compares the situation in the aftermath of World War II to the demise of the Weimar republic, but there is a longer history. There is continuity from the bureaucracies of Bismarck, through the Weimar Republic, to the Nazi era, and into post-War Germany. Today, the legacy continues in the form of investigations into the possible Stasi involvement on the part of contemporary civil servants.
Origins of German Bureaucracy Ordered society would not be possible without bureaucracies to ensure the proper functioning of modern institutions such as hospitals, police, education, and the military. Bureaucracy predates the modern era, of course, but it was not until the late 18th and early 19th centuries that bureaucracy as we currently understand it was established.
Max Weber's theories refer to: The civil service in Germany dates back to the middle ages when commoners and lesser nobles were appointed civil servants who served at the leisure of the sovereign rather than an intermediary nobleman as was typical of feudal societies. These appointments were little different from ennoblement, and barely resembled the functionaries of a modern bureaucratic institution.
There was little in the way of a uniformed discipline. For one thing, appointments were made with scant regard to the merit of the individual being appointed--nepotism and favoritism were the rule. Even in medieval times, however, the irregular and inefficient bureaucracies focused the power of the sovereign.
Through delegation of office, consolidation of knowledge--and therefore power--was the result. The imposition of a rigid hierarchy ensured that rulers had direct insight into the happenings of everything within their domain.
With the economies of scale ushered in by the modern age, the inefficient, pre-modern, non-meritocratic bureaucracies were unable to cope with the ensuing 'multiplicities.
Michel Foucault states that "Discipline [ The modern nation state required a new mode of power that was capable of managing the increasingly complex task of disciplining society. Foucault argues that the conjuncture of urbanization, a 'floating population' the masses were no longer firmly fixed to feudal estatesand an enormous increase in the scale of the number of people to be supervised or manipulated necessitated development of disciplinary methods.
Furthermore, mass production and rationalization of the economy also required more complex management processes. The old feudal society was not equipped for the industrial revolution and mass production.
Remnants of feudal society persisted, but the role of the nobility diminished as professional bureaucrats assumed greater control over the administration of the military, hospitals, police, and the market economy. The ascendancy of disciplines in governance and bureaucratic institutions can be seen as a profound shift in how power was wielded.The Vichy regime was the French government which succeeded the Third Republic from July to August It was proclaimed by Marshal Philippe Pétain following the military defeat of France and the July 10 vote by the National Assembly to grant extraordinary powers to Pétain, who held the title of President of the Council.
Encyclopedia of Jewish and Israeli history, politics and culture, with biographies, statistics, articles and documents on topics from anti-Semitism to Zionism.
Encyclopedia of Jewish and Israeli history, politics and culture, with biographies, statistics, articles and documents on topics from anti-Semitism to Zionism. Bibliography: Hirschfeld Gerhard, Nazi Rule and Dutch Collaboartion, The Netherlands under German Occupation, Hamburg Jong Louis, The Netherlands and Nazi Germany, Harvard University Press, Warmbrunn, The Dutch under German Occupation Many scholars and analysts suggest that nationalism produces resistance against foreign powers, but a reconsideration of the German occupation of France in World War II reveals how a population might instead choose acquiescence or active collaboration.
Resistance to the German occupation of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia during World War II is a scarcely documented subject.
Compared to other countries under German occupation, there was little formal resistance, partly due to an effective German policy that deterred acts of resistance and annihilated organizations of resistance.
In the early days of the war, the Czech population.