Jan 26, Passenger services Indian Railways operates 8, passenger trains and transports around five billion annually across twenty-seven states and three union territories DelhiPondicherry and Chandigarh. Sikkim is the only state not connected. The passenger division is the most preferred form of long distance transport in most of the country. In South India and North-East India however, buses are the preferred mode of transport for medium to long distance transport.
Technology[ edit ] Steel is an alloy composed of between 0. From prehistory through the creation of the blast furnaceiron was produced from iron ore as wrought iron, The introduction of the blast furnace reversed the problem.
If the process of steelmaking begins with pig iron instead of wrought iron, the challenge is to remove a sufficient amount of carbon to get it to the 0.
Before about steel was an expensive product, made in small quantities and used mostly for swords, tools and cutlery; all large metal structures were made of wrought or cast iron. Steelmaking was centered in Sheffield, Britain, which supplied the European and the American markets.
The introduction of cheap steel was due to the Bessemer and the open hearth processes, two technological advances made in England. In the Bessemer processmolten pig iron is converted to steel by blowing air through it after it was removed from the furnace.
The air blast burned the carbon and silicon out of the pig iron, releasing heat and causing the temperature of the molten metal to rise. Henry Bessemer demonstrated the process in and had a successful operation going by By Bessemer steel was widely used for ship plate.
By the s, the speed, weight, and quantity of railway traffic was limited by the strength of the wrought iron rails in use.
The solution was to turn to steel rails, which the Bessemer process made competitive in price. Experience quickly proved steel had much greater strength and durability and could handle the increasingly heavy and faster engines and cars.
The usual open-hearth process used pig iron, ore, and scrap, and became known as the Siemens-Martin process. Its process allowed closer control over the composition of the steel; also, a substantial quantity of scrap could be included in the charge.
The crucible process remained important for making high-quality alloy steel into the 20th century. Britain's demand for iron and steel, combined with ample capital and energetic entrepreneurs, made it the world leader in the first half of the 19th century.
Britain had lost its American market, and was losing its role elsewhere; indeed American products were now underselling British steel in Britain. Britain went from 1. The US started from a lower base, but grew faster; from 0. Germany went from 0. France, Belgium, Austria-Hungary, and Russia, combined, went from 2.
During the war the demand for artillery shells and other supplies caused a spurt in output and a diversion to military uses. It was wedded for too long to obsolescent technology and was a very late adopter of the open hearth furnace method.
Entrepreneurship was lacking in the s; the government could not persuade the industry to upgrade its plants. For generations the industry had followed a patchwork growth pattern which proved inefficient in the face of world competition.
In the first steel development plan was put into practice with the aim of increasing capacity; the "Iron and Steel Act of " meant nationalization of the industry. However, the reforms were dismantled by the Conservative governments in the s.
Inunder Labour Party control again, the industry was again nationalized. But by then twenty years of political manipulation had left companies such as British Steel with serious problems: By the s the Labour government had its main goal to keep employment high in the declining industry.
Since British Steel was a main employer in depressed regions, it had kept many mills and facilities that were operating at a loss.Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
Because of its high tensile strength and low cost, it is a major component used in buildings, infrastructure, tools, ships, automobiles, machines, appliances, and weapons..
Iron is the base metal of steel. Iron is able to take on two crystalline forms (allotropic forms), body centered cubic and face centered cubic, depending on its.
The history of the modern steel industry began in the late s, but since then, steel has been basic to the world's industrial economy. This article is intended only to address the business, economic and social dimensions of the industry, since the bulk production of steel began as a result of Henry Bessemer's development of the Bessemer converter in Featured.
McKinsey Global Institute Our mission is to help leaders in multiple sectors develop a deeper understanding of the global economy. Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements. Because of its high tensile strength and low cost, it is a major component used in buildings, infrastructure, tools, ships, automobiles, machines, appliances, and weapons..
Iron is the base metal of steel. Iron is able to take on two crystalline forms (allotropic forms), body centered cubic . Get the latest news and analysis in the stock market today, including national and world stock market news, business news, financial news and more. Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years.
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