Before the launch[ edit ] Satellite construction project[ edit ] On 17 Decemberchief Soviet rocket scientist Sergei Korolev proposed a developmental plan for an artificial satellite to Minister of Defence Industry Dimitri Ustinov.
The Soviet Union's Sputnik 1 satellite took to the skies on Oct. 4, , launching the space age and the Cold War space race. The first, named Sputnik 40 to commemorate the fortieth anniversary of the launch of Sputnik 1, was deployed in November Sputnik 41 was launched a year later, and Sputnik 99 was deployed in February On Oct. 4, , Sputnik 1 successfully launched and entered Earth's orbit. Thus, began the space age. The successful launch shocked the world, giving the former Soviet Union the distinction of putting the first human-made object into space.
Background[ edit ] The United States was the dominant world power in the early s. Lockheed U-2 spy plane flights over the Soviet Union provided intelligence that the U. This spurred the United States to make substantial federal investments in research and development, education and national security.
This gave the Soviets two propaganda advantages over the U. This was the most immediate threat that the launch of Sputnik 1 posed. The United States, a land with a history of geographical security from European wars, suddenly seemed vulnerable. A contributing factor to the Sputnik Crisis was that the Soviets had not released a photograph of the satellite for five days after the launch.
The signals of Sputnik 1 continued for 22 days Problems playing this file? Hours after the launch, the University of Illinois at Urbana—Champaign Astronomy Department rigged an ad-hoc interferometer to measure signals from the satellite.
The programming and calculation was completed in less than two days. The rapid publication of the ephemeris orbit in the journal Nature within a month of the satellite launch  helped to dispel some of the fear created by the Sputnik launch.
It also lent credence to the spurious idea that the Sputnik launch was part of an organized effort to dominate space. The same rocket that launched Sputnik could send a nuclear warhead anywhere in the world in a matter of minutes, stripping the continental United States of its oceanic defenses.
Eisenhower's reaction[ edit ] Five days after the launch of Sputnik 1, the world's first artificial satellite, Eisenhower addressed the people of the United States. After being asked by a reporter about security concerns regarding the Russian satellite, Eisenhower said "Now, so far as the satellite itself is concerned, that does not raise my apprehensions, not one iota".
Eisenhower believed that Sputnik's weight "was not commensurate with anything of great military significance, and that was also a factor in putting it in [proper] perspective". The USSR had surpassed the United States and "the rest of the free world" in scientific and technological advancements in outer space.
If the USSR maintained this superiority, it might use it as a means to undermine the United States' prestige and leadership. If the USSR became the first to achieve significantly superior military capability in outer space and create an imbalance of power, it could pose a direct military threat to the United States.
In the first and second days following the event, New York Times wrote that the launch of Sputnik 1 was a major global propaganda and prestige triumph for Russian Communism.
Clarke said that the day Sputnik orbited around the Earth the United States became a second-rate power. The Soviets also had a hand in the political exploitation of the event. Nikita Khrushchevleader of the USSR, reflected on the event saying "It always sounded good to say in public speeches that we could hit a fly at any distance with our missiles.
Despite the wide radius of destruction caused by our nuclear warheads, pinpoint accuracy was still necessary - and it was difficult to achieve". Increased emphasis was placed on the Navy's Project Vanguard to launch an American satellite into orbit. There was renewed interest in the preceding Explorer program that launched the first American satellite into orbit on January 31, The act was a four-year program that poured billions of dollars into the U.
Kennedy decided to deploy 1, Minuteman missiles. Senate during Eisenhower's term, public reaction to the Soviet's launching the first human into orbitYuri Gagarinon April 12, led Kennedy to raise the stakes of the Space Race by setting the goal of landing men on the Moon.
Kennedy claimed that "If the Soviets control space they can control the earth, as in past centuries the nation that controlled the seas dominated the continents". The Sputnik Crisis sparked the U. Gerald Forda Republican congressman from Michigan, had stated that "We Middle Westerners are sometimes called isolationists.
I don't agree with the label; but there can be no isolationists anywhere when a thermonuclear warhead can flash down from space at hypersonic speed to reach any spot on Earth minutes after its launching".The Launch of Sputnik, On October 4, , the Soviet Union launched the earth's first artificial satellite, Sputnik I.
The successful launch came as a shock to experts and citizens in the United States, who had hoped that the United States would accomplish this scientific advancement first.
|Man who served 25 years for murder exonerated by DNA||The launch of that craft, the Soviet Union's Sputnik 1kicked off the space age and the Cold War space race, the latter of which peaked when Apollo 11 astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin stepped onto the surface of the moon in July Here are a few fun facts you may not know about Sputnik 1 and its brief but world-changing mission.|
The launch of Sputnik 1 propelled the world toward new political, military, and scientific developments, marking the beginning of the United States and U.S.S.R. space race. On January 31, , the United States launched its first satellite, Explorer 1. The Launch of Sputnik, On October 4, , the Soviet Union launched the earth's first artificial satellite, Sputnik I.
The successful launch came as a shock to experts and citizens in the United States, who had hoped that the United States would accomplish this scientific advancement first. On Oct. 4, , Sputnik 1 successfully launched and entered Earth's orbit.
Thus, began the space age. The successful launch shocked the world, giving the former Soviet Union the distinction of putting the first human-made object into space. On Oct. 4, , Sputnik 1 successfully launched and entered Earth's orbit. Thus, began the space age.
The successful launch shocked the world, giving the former Soviet Union the distinction of putting the first human-made object into space. The successful launch of Sputnik 1 was the first instance of a successful launch of an artificial Earth satellite launched into outer space.
This was done successfully by the Soviet Union on October 4, /5(10).