Students will be able to identify and discuss their own career aspirations or relevant skills and knowledge and how they impact on others. Students will be able to identify and demonstrate the perspectives or problem solving techniques of different disciplines. Students will be able to consider the role of their discipline in diverse cultural and global contexts.
Hereditarian ideology and European constructions of race Hereditary statuses versus the rise of individualism Inheritance as the basis of individual social position is an ancient tenet of human historyextending to some point after the beginnings of agriculture about 10, bce.
Wills and testaments capture this principle, and caste systems, such as that of India, reflect the expression of another form of this principle, buttressed by religious beliefs.
Arguments for the divine right of kings and succession laws in European societies mirrored deep values of hereditary status.
But many trends in European cultural history over the 18th and 19th centuries contradicted the idea of social placement by kinship fiat. Ever since the enclosure movement in England in the 15th century, the transformation to wage labourthe rise of merchant capitalism, and the entry into public consciousness of the significance of private property, Europeans have been conditioned to the values of individualism and of progress through prosperity.
Wage labour strengthened ideas of individual freedom and advancement. The philosophy of autonomous individualism took root in western European societies, beginning first in England, and became the engine of social mobility in these rapidly changing areas. For their descendants in America, the limitations of hereditary status were antithetical to the values of individual freedom, at least freedom for those of European descent.
Reflecting and promoting these values were the works of some of the Enlightenment writers and philosophers, including VoltaireJean-Jacques RousseauJohn Lockeand Montesquieu.
Their writings had a greater impact on Americans than on their compatriots. Their advocacy of human freedom and the minimal intrusion of government was uniquely interpreted by Americans.
European societies had long been structured into class divisions that had a strong hereditary basis, but the gulf between those who benefited from overseas trade and the impoverished masses who competed for low-paying jobs or survived without work in the gutters of towns and cities widened dramatically during the age of empire building.
In France the dissatisfaction of the masses erupted periodically, reaching a peak in the French Revolution ofwhich overthrew the Bourbon monarch and brought Napoleon I to power.
As early as the turn of the 18th century, some intellectuals were concerned with these seething class conflicts that occasionally burst forth into violence in France.
He maintained that the noble classes were originally Germanic Franks who conquered the inferior Gauls, Romans, and others and established themselves as the ruling class.
The Franks derived their superiority from German forebears, who were a proud, freedom-loving people with democratic institutions, pure laws, and monogamous marriage. They were great warriors, disciplined and courageous, and they ruled by the right of might.
According to Boulainvilliers, they carried and preserved their superiority in their blood. The Germanic myth and English constructions of an Anglo-Saxon past In England, from the time that Henry VIII broke with the Roman Catholic Church and Protestant sects emerged on the horizon, historians, politicians, and philosophers had been wrestling with the creation of a new English identity.
Indeed, European powers were soon to be caught up in the ethnic rivalries, extreme chauvinismand intolerance out of which all the nation-states of Europe would be created.
The English sought their new identity in the myths and heroics of the past and strove to create an image of antiquity that would rival those of other great civilizations. They created a myth of an Anglo-Saxon people, distinguished from the VikingsPictsCeltsRomans, Normansand others who had inhabited English territory.
In their histories the Anglo-Saxons were a freedom-loving people who had advanced political institutions, an early form of representative government, and a pure religion long before the Norman Conquest.JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources.
Eugenics: Eugenics, the selection of desired heritable characteristics to improve future generations, typically in reference to humans. The term eugenics was coined in by British scientist Francis Galton.
By World War I many scientists and political leaders supported eugenics, though it ultimately failed as a science. BibMe Free Bibliography & Citation Maker - MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard.
Mar 07, · ppnl: I know, it’s a bit counterintuitive.
An explanation that involved actual interaction between genes and environment would probably be very complex, and . The nature versus nurture debate involves whether human behavior is determined by the environment, either prenatal or during a person's life, or by a person's yunusemremert.com alliterative expression "nature and nurture" in English has been in use since at least the Elizabethan period and goes back to medieval French.
The combination of the two concepts as complementary is ancient (Greek: ἁπό. The Role of Reason in Human Behavior - Freud and Thomas Hobbes disagree with Plato and Aristotle regarding the role of reason in human behavior, and all four of these disagree with Jean-Paul Sartre on the same question.